Main Laptop Parts Explained

On this website you will find information about all main parts inside a typical laptop or notebook computer. You can identify parts by the description or image below. In order to get more information about a particular part, you can follow the link in the description or simply click on the image.

MOTHERBOARD

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The system board is the main logic board in any laptop. All internal components are connected to the system board. This is one of the most expensive parts in a laptop.

MEMORY

More memory you have installed – better the performance of the laptop. Learn about different types of memory, compatibility issues and how you can replace or upgrade memory yourself. The memory is a user replaceable part.

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HARD DRIVE

The hard drive is the main storage of information in a laptop. All system files, personal files are stored inside the hard drive. Find the difference between SATA and IDE hard drives. Faster hard drive you have installed – faster data access you get. You can upgrade the hard drive yourself.

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PROCESSOR/CPU

The processor is the brain of your laptop. Faster CPU means faster data processing.

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KEYBOARD

The keyboard is the main input device. Find out how the keyboard is connected to the motherboard and how it can be removed or replaced.

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CD/DVD OPTICAL DRIVE

The CD/DVD drive allows you to read/write data from/to a CD or DVD disc. Lear about the difference between drives with regular and SATA connectors.

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COOLING FAN

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The cooling fan is a part of the cooling module in a laptop. The fan helps to cool down the processor when the laptop is turned on.

VIDEO CARD/GRAPHICS CARD

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In most modern laptops the video card is integrated into the system board. If the video card fails you have to replace the whole motherboard.

In some laptops the video card is a discrete module and can be removed or replaced separately from the motherboard.

AUDIO BOARD/SOUND BOARD

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In most laptops the audio board is a part of the motherboard. If that’s the case, all audio board input/output components such as volume control, microphone jack and headphone jack are soldered directory to the motherboard.

WIRELESS NETWORK CARD

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The internal wireless card helps you to connect to the Internet without running a cable. Learn about different types of internal wireless cards and how they are connected to the motherboard.

CMOS BATTERY/RTC BATTERY

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The CMOS battery provides power to the CMOS chip when the laptop is turned off or disconnected form the wall outlet.

LCD SCREEN

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The LCD screen is one of the most expensive parts in a laptop computer. The LCD screen mounts inside the display panel.

If you accidentally cracked the screen, it has to be replaced. You cannot repair a cracked screen.

SCREEN INVERTER BOARD/FL INVERTER

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The inverter board is a power supply for the backlight lamp inside the LCD screen. When inverter fails, the LCD screen goes very very dark and you barely can see any image on the screen. In most laptops the inverter board is mounted inside the display panel below the LCD screen.

SCREEN BACKLIGHT LAMP/CCFL TUBE

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The backlight lamp is the main source of light in the LCD screen. The backlight lamp is mouted inside the screen. When the backlight lamp fails, you have to replace the whole LCD screen. It’s possible to replace just the lamp inside the screen but it’s very hard and has to be performed by an experienced technician.

SCREEN CABLE/VIDEO CABLE

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The video cable connectes the Laptop screen to motherboard. The video cable carries data signal for the LCD screen and power for the ivnerter board.

WEB CAMERA

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Many modern laptops come with a web camera built into the display panel. The web camera is not a part of the LCD screen. The web camers is located on a separate board and can be replaced separately from the LCD.

DISPLAY HINGES/SCREEN HINGES

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The dispaly hinges connect two main parts of any laptop – the display panel and base assembly.

AC/DC POWER ADAPTER

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The AC/DC power adapter converts high voltage AC power from the mains to low voltage DC power required by the laptop.

MAIN BATTERY

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The battery is a secondary source of power for a laptop. The battery gets charged while the laptop is plugged into the mains and keeps the laptop running when it’s unplugged from the mains.

AC/DC Power adapter

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AC/DC power adapter as known as power supply or power brick converts the high voltage AC power from a wall outlet into the low voltage DC power needed for your laptop.

The AC/DC adapter provides power for the laptop and charges the battery. It’s very important to use the right adapter for your laptop.

If you are looking for a new adapter, you should check the following:

1. Your new adapter must have exactly the same plug (adapter tip) as the original one.

2. Your new adapter must output exactly the same voltage as the original one.

3. Polarity on the new adapter’s plug must be the same as on the original one.

You can find the output voltage and amperage on the adapter’s label. As you see on the picture below, my adapter outputs 19V-3.42A.

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When you buy a new adapter, you can follow this rule:

The output voltage must be the same, the amperage could be the same or higher than on the original power adapter.

For example, if my laptop requires 19v-3.42A adapter, I can safely use 19v-3.95A adapter.

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